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Fri, Apr

Kawlram Ngunkhuai Chawva Phawtning le Chinram Dirhmun (Revenue sharing practice in Myanmar)

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CHIN DIGEST Vol.2/No.5| Hi zawn ah “ngunkhuai” kan ti tik ah leitang chuak thil in hmuhmi ngunkhuai (natural resource revenue) kha chim duh bikmi cu a si. Ramkomh Kawlram cu leitang chuak thil lei in vawleicung ah ram rum bik pawl ah aa telmi a si. Chawva mansung phunphun–––lungvar (mineral stones), thing mansung (timber), zinan (oil & gas) tbk tam ngaingai a chuahnak ram rum a si.

 

MEITI timi phu nih an chuahmi report ahcun 2013/14 chung ah Kawlram cozah sin ah zinan (oil & gas) in phaisa MKK 2.6 trillion le lungvar mansung (sui, jade, ruby tbk) in phaisa MKK 442 billion (USD 460 million) ngunkhuai acozah sin ah a lut tiah a ṭial. Kum 2014 chung ah acozah nih lungvar zuar man in a hmuhmi lawng hi United Nations nih cun USD 12.3 billion a si, tiah a ti, Global Witness nih cun USD 31 billion an si, tiah a tuak. Kawlram cozah tu nih cun “USD 1.15 billion lawng a si” tiah a chim ve. An chimmi kha an i lo cio hna lo. Caṭialtu pumpak ka hmuhning ahcun  acozah nih a chimmi USD 1.15 billion nak hin cun tam deuh hrimhrim a lut lai, ti hi a si. Kawlram cozah nih kum khat chung a hmuhmi dihlak chawva ngunkhuai chung in za ah 47.5% hi leitang chuak thil in a hmuhmi tangka (revenue) an si. 

Democracy ram ah rampi nih a ngeihmi ngeihchiah chawva ngunkhuai vialte hna hi Ramkomh cozah (Central Govt.), Ramkulh cozah (State Govt.) le Ramṭhen cozah (Regional Govt.) hna nih zeitin an ni phawtning le i ṭhenning a si timi (revenue sharing) kha a biapi ngai tawn. A bik in Kawlram bantuk a sii a fakmi ram le buaibainak a tamnak ram ah hi bantuk ngunkhuai chawva pawl hi zeitin dah ningcang tein le sullam ngei tein kan hman hna lai i, kan  ṭhenhphawt hna lai, ti kha a biapi khun. 

Ngunkhuai i ṭhenhphawtning phunglam kha tampi an um. Ram pakhat le ram pakhat an i lo cio hna lo leng ah ram pakhat chung i Ramkomh cozah le Ramkulh cozah pakhat le pakhat hna karlak an i ṭhenhphawt cio ning phunglam zong an i khat cio lo. Ram tampi ahcun ramkomh cozah nih ngunkhuai lawng savo phawt bantuk in a phaw hna lo; vawlei tang in an chuah rih lomi leitang thilchuak vialte hna kong ah nawlngeihnak (national resource governance, autonomy) tiang kha zeitindah ramkomh cozah le ramkulh cozah karlak ah nawlngeihnak a umtuning a si lai ti tiang kha ṭha tein ri an suai i, an i ṭhen hna. Biana ah: Federal phung a hmangmi Canada le Australia ram bantuk zong khi chuah rih lomi leitang chuak thil kong tiang ah nawlngeihnak aa cheumi ram an si. Cun zei bantuk phun kong dah ramkulh cozah nih nawl a ngeih lai i, zei bantuk phun dah ramkomh cozah nih nawl a ngeih lai tbk zong kha fiang tein i ṭhenhphawt a si. Biana ah:  rili chung tang zinan (offshore oil & gas) tbk hna khi cu ramkulh cozah nih siloin ramkomh cozah hna nih nawl a ngeih deuh tawn ve. 

Tulio Ramkomh Kawlram ah hi bantuk vawleitang chuak thil ngunkhuai chawva kong ah “nawlngeihnak” hna ningcang tein i ṭhenhphawt khawh ding ahcun Kawlram uknak Phunghrampi hi Federal Phunglam in thlen le remh a herh. Hihi tulio ramkhel tiluan ning zoh ahcun a fawi rih lo. Naypyidaw lei in ramkomh cozah lawng nih kan vawlei tang thil hna cu a chuah i a zuar peng rih leng ah chuah rih lomi leitang thilchuak kong zong ah amah lawng nawl a ngei. 

Cucaah Federal ukning phung in Phunghrampi thlen/remh khawh rih lo zong ah zeitin dah ngunkhuai tangka chawva hna hi sullam ngei deuh le santlai deuh in ramkulh cozah sin ah cheu le phawt khawh an si lai timi kha tlawmpal pahnih thumte ka hmuhning langhter ka duh. 

Pakhatnak: Ramkomh cozah le ramkulh cozah hna karlak ah ngunkhuai chawva i phawtning phunglam pakhat kha ser khawh a si (building national consensus on natural resource revenue sharing formula). Hi bantuk phunglam hi atu tiang Kawlram ah a um lo. Hi phunglam a um ahcun ramkulh cozah hna nih zeizat/zeitin ngunkhuai an hmuh i an hman ti kha phunglam zoh in mipi kan lung a fian khawh lai leng ah acozah nih ning canglo in chawva an hman le hman lo zong kha zohfel le hngalh (monitor) khawh an si lai. Cu bantuk phunglam ser ding ahcun Hluttaw tonpumhnak ah Hluttaw palai hna nih biatung chuahpi khawh a si.  Hmasa President Thein Sein cozah chan ahkhan hi bantuk phunglam a um lo ruang ah ramkulh/ramṭhen lakah bia a chimrel kho deuhmi lawng nih budget tam deuh an hmuh tiah theih a rak si. Natural Resource Governance Institute report  (NRGI, P-11) nih a ṭial ning ah cun “hal u law pek nan si lai” timi (ask and ye shall receive timi principle) phun kha an i tlaih i, ramkomh ah a hal ngam deuhmi le a hal kho deuhmi poah nih tam deuh budget an hmuh, tiah a ti. Hihi ramkomh le ramkulh cozah karlak ah ngunkhuai chawva i ṭhenhphawtning phunglam felfai tein a um lo caah a si. 

Pahnihnak: Ramkulh cozah kut ah ngunkhuai tangka hmannak “nawlngeihnak nawl” tam deuh pek khawh a si in a lang. Kawlram Phunghrampi thlen lo zong in cucu tuah duh phawt ahcun tuah khawhmi a si. Cucu a cunglei ka chimmi phunglam bantuk ahkhan fiangfai tein ṭial le telh khawh a si. Nihin kan theihnak ahcun ramkulh cozah nih ramkomh cozah sin in budget an hmuh cangmi dihlak cung hmanh ah nawlngeihnak dihlak an ngei kho lo. Naypidaw lei Ramkomh cozah sin ah tangka cazin dihlak report pek zungzal kha an hau. Cutin report pek a hauh lengmang ruang ah ramkulh cozah nih anmah tein an ram cio nih a herhmi taktak “ram policy” le a pipami ṭhanchonak “development policy” suaisam in an chuahpi ti lo. Naypyidaw in ramkomh cozah nih a hun ser ciami policy a phi a chuahnak men le an lungtlin nakding ah phaisa tangka report dawh tein ṭial le pek  khawh tu kha an i zuam deuh tawn hna. Biana ah: Kawlram chung tam deuh ah cinthlak (agriculture) lei policy thapek hna kha san a tlai tuk kho men nain Chinram ahcun san a tlai bikmi zong kha a si lo kho men. Asinain, pek cangmi ramkulh budget kong hmanh ah Naypyidaw lei in nawl an hun ngeih tuk rih tikah anmah suai ciami policy tlinter kha a pakhatnak chiah hna kha a hei hau ko lai.

Pathumnak: Vawlei tang thilchuak in hmuhmi chawva ngunkhuai hi kanmah ta lawng a si lo tiah ruachih lengmang a hau. Vawlei chungchuak chawva cu a dih khomi (irreversible resource) a si caah kanmah ta lawng kha an si lo. A ralaimi techin fapar (next generations) pawl hna an ta zong kha a si ve. Cucaah leitang chuak thil in hmuhmi ngunkhuai chawva hna cu chan saupi a va hmun dingmi hrambunhnak (long-term investment) caah tam deuh hman khawh a biapi ngaingai. Hi bantuk timhtuahnak hi Kawlram ah atu tiang kan hmu rih hna lo. Atu lio kan Kawlram cozah cu vawlei tang thilchuak in hmuhmi chawva ngunkhuai pawl hmanh hi a dang tein a ṭhen lo. Bianabia ah Kachin ram le Shan ram tbk in hmuhmi chawva ngunkhuai hna kha an i khat lai lo. Hihi acozah pakhat nih a dangdang tein cazin (record) ṭha tein a tuah dih kha a herhmi a si. Zeicatiah milu le hmunhma aa dang ciomi ramkulh le ramṭhen pawl an tinvo le covo ning tein ṭhenhphawt thiam a herh ngai leng ah mahka ram le hmun i a hei hungte dingmi hmailei techin fapar pawl ca tiang ah hrambunh piak kha a herh hrim caah a si. Hi bantuk hin Scandinavian ram (Norway, Denmark, Sweden tbk) le Australia, Canada tbk ah an tuahpiak hna. Vawleitang thilchuak in hmuhmi ngunkhuai chawva hna cu cuticun tuchanmi kan ta lawng a si lo timi lungput he hmailei techin fapar ca tiang san a tlai te ding in an i ṭhen i, an hman.  

Kawlram ahcun U Thein Sein cozah a rak kai hnu 2012 hrawng lawng in ramkulh cozah pawl sin ah ngunkhuai tangka (fiscal decentralization or revenue sharing) phawt le ṭhen kha an thawk.  2013/14 kum chung ah chawva ngunkhuai 100% chung ah 3.4% hi Ramkulh 7, Ramṭhen 7 le Self-Administrative Zones pawl sin ah phawt le pek an rak si. Budget kum (Fiscal Year) 2014/15 ahcun 7.6% ah an hun kaiter i, FY 2015/16 ahcun 8.7 % tiang a hun phan. A taangmi 91.3% hi cu Naypyidaw lei ramkomh cozah nih an tawlrel i an hman dih. NRGI timi phu nih ca an chuah ning ah cun zinan (oil & gas) in hmuhmi chawva MMK 2.6 trillion chung ah MMK 1.3 trillion hi other accounts timi chung ah an luhter i, MMK 880 million lawnglawng hi Ministry of Finance kut ah a phan. Hi other accounts timi chung i chawva a lutmi vialte hna hi zeicaah timi le khoika dah an hman ti hi ralkap dah ti lo ahcun aho hmanh nih theih a si lo. 

2015/16 budget kum chung ah Chin ramkulh cozah kut ah tangka MMK 125.3 billion budget phawt a si. Buaktlak in a tam bik phawt le pek kan si. A tam bik ti tikah tangka a zat in ramkulh le ramṭhen dang nakin a tam deuh tinak cu a si lo. Chinram cu milu kan tlawm tuk caah budget an kan pekmi kha i phawt le i ṭhen ahcun milu pakhat nih MMK 250,600 (USD 195) hrawng tinvo a si caah a tam bik tinak kha a si.  Kawlram ah a sifak bik le a dangdang ṭhanchonak lei in a hnu fualbik ramkulh a si ruang ah hitin budget tam bik an phawtnak hi a si ko lai. Mahbelte, hi budget hna hi Chin ramkulh cozah nih lam sersiamnak le remhnak ah ti lo ahcun a tam deuh cu acozah zung inn saknak le minister pawl umnak inn saknak deuh ah a hman dih ngawt tiah theih a si. 

NLD cozah a kai hnu 2016/17 budget kum ah Chin ramkulh cozah sin ah zeizat dah phawt a si ti theih a si rih lo. Kan theihcia bantuk in Chinram cu Kawlram ramkulh vialte lak ah a sifak bik ram kan si. Milu 73% hi (under UN poverty line) si fak cazin kan lut. Cu sifahnak chung luatnak ding ah Chin ramkulh cozah nih tangka hi sullam ngei le mipi caah santlai dingte in an hmang maw tihi a biapi ngai. Thein Sein cozah chan ah ramkomh cozah policy tlinternak ca lawng ah tangka tampi an dih nain, an lohma a kal lo. Acozah thar an sernak thla 6 a si cang nain Chin ramkulh cozah nih Chinram huap ṭhanchonak policy (comprehensive development policy) pakhat hmanh a chuahpi kho rih lo. Policy a um lo tikah hi nghunkhuai vialte zeitin dah an hman te lai ti hi theih a har ngai.

Cucaah Ramkomh Kawlram nih pawngkam ram hna a dawi khawh nakding le ramchung rualremnak le remdaihnak taktak a um khawh nakding ahcun leitang chuak in hmuhmi ngunkhuai chawva vialte hna hi ningcang tein i phawt le hman a biapi ngai.  Federal ukning phung in Phunghrampi thlen khawh rih lo zong ah ramkomh le ramkulh cozah hna kar ah ngunkhuai chawva i phawtning phunglam ṭha tein ngeih a herh tuk leng ah ramkulh cozah kut ah chawva hmannak nawl zong tam deuh pek a herh hringhran. Chin ramkulh cozah zong nih a hmuhmi ngunkhuai chawva hna kha hmailei techin fapar ca tiang santlai kho ding tiang in sullam ngei tein Chinram mipi caah a hman thiam hi a biapi ngaingai.

References:

1. Sharing the Wealth: A roadmap for distributing Myanmar’s national Resource Revenues (NRGI, February 2016)
2. Jade: Myanmar’s “Big State Secret” ( Global Witness, October 2015)
3. Myanmar Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (MEITI) Report (April 2013-March 2014)
4. Mizzima Weekly: Issue 39, Vol.5 (September 29, 2016)

 

By Rual Lian Thang
Yangon, 2nd Oct 2016

Theiternak: Caṭialtu Rual Lian Thang (Boi Boi) cu Thailand ram khualipi Bangkok ah ummi sianginn ṭha bik pakhat simi Chulalongkorn University in Master of Art in Development Studies (MAIDS) a dihmi a si. Atulio ah, German Foundation pakhat Heinrich-Böll Stiftung Myanmar (HBS) ah rianṭuan cuahmah liomi a si. 

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